This is a project I followed back at the time of my Master Degree in Italy with two my classmates Valentina and Laura.
At the time the study was more focus on journalism, one of the topic I was most passionate of at that time together with Chinese and Modern histories.
The Chinese Journals
The first journals and magazines made their first apparance in China at the end of 19th century, following the foreing influnce of Westerners travellers, merchants, military and man of church.
By the time of the War Against Japan, in 1936 in China there were around 1131 journals and magazines, mostly produced locally by local support or even by foreing support for those more related with polical contents. Infact already in 1927, the Guomingdang, the Chinese National Party, was already publicizing his first party journals.
The main productions were based on Journals and Magazines:
- Journals: more close to the international standards of the time, supported by good editorials and logistics. Advertisements was already at that time quite common;
- Magazines: were more similar to magazines, the register utilized was more easy going, less formal, and the topic utilized were more directed to the population as intrattainment. With the time, many of this magazines started to compete with journals for their topics.
Source of Information from China
The main source of informations instead from China were composed by Foreign Language Newspapers edited in China, foreign representatives and News Agencies.
Americans: North China Star di Tien tsin, The China Press, Shanghai Evening Post, Ta Mei Wan Pao di Shang ,China Weekly Review. English: The Peking Tien tsin Times, North China Daily Mail, Tsingtao Times, Central China Post, North China Daily News, il North China Herald, Shanghai Times, Shanghai Sunday Times, il Finance & Commerce. French: Journal de Shangahi, Journae de Pekin. Hong kong Based: Hong Kong Daily Press, South China Morning Post, Hong konh Telegraph, China Mail.
Part one: The Italian Sources of Information:
Between the foreign agencies also Italy had one agencies, Agenzia Stefani. Agenzia Stefani has been probaly the first modern Italian news agency, opened by the Venetian Guglielmo Stefani and Camillo Cavour in Turin in 1853, a few years before the foundation of the modern Italy State (1861). The agency felt in disgrace in 1945, at the end of the Second World Conflict.
At the time of the Fascist era Agenzia Stefani become intenationally quite influent as one of the main voice of the regime, with Manlio Morgani as director.
Main other magazines are Rivista degli Studi Politici, Rivista Politica e Economica, Rassegna Politica Internazionale, Gerarchia, and ASIATICA.
The main difference between magazines and journals were the nature of the message. Journals were deeply affected by the political control, while magazines were using more scientific terminology.
Another interesting factor was that journals were riporting rarely the name of the authors, while this was not happening in the magazines.
Many are the documentation before the first world war.
From "The Gazzettino" September 22, 1940 junks and sampans Nela harbor of Hong Kong. HongKong, English stronghold in southern China, the tireless Japanese soldiers who are laying siege, to prevent the infiltration of weapons to Chiang Kai Shek, was born from the Opium War. And 'history of heart years ago. The Chinese government, impressed by the massacres that the drug was gutted in ever wider strata of the people, had decided to suppress the trade. But it was not nearly as convenient to the British and especially shareholders of the British East Company, which sold in China Opium produced in India were fabulous earnings. The defenders of civilization found highly logical and moral mirror sull'abbruttimento of tens of thousands of Chinese. So the Chinese government to veto the British responded with cannon fire, bombarding the forts of Canton. che in vista dei lucri enormi sfidavano le navi cinesi ei tifoni, e pertanto vengono ancor oggi considerate oltre Manica come autentiche glorie della marineria inglese." style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"> Immediately after the shooting the drug trade on a massive scale, smuggled in by special <golette dell'oppio> that in view of the huge lucri defied the Chinese ships and typhoons, and are therefore still considered across the Channel as genuine glories of the English navy. Who does not believe it will be able to see that there is a rich literature on the subject in England. As the continued smuggling, the Chinese government did seize 20,000 chests of opium in Canton belonging to the British. The answer came in the form of new guns and weapon of choice-of-Albion with the block of the mouth of the Pearl River which is in the South China what the Thames is for England. After two years the Chinese had enough of it: his head bowed, paid many millions to the British, they opened the ports to their merchants and ceded the island of Hong Kong, then rounded the peninsula Kow ionn, which runs on the rail of Canton. Throughout a thousand square kilometers. di Canton e della Cina" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The British had of course made their accounts by clever merchants knew that the Pearl River could never accommodate large ships such as those on which his bearings international sea trade, and in Hong Kong took the <key> of Guangzhou of China the south. ."> Just like they did for the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Straits of Malacca and quant'altri places have been able to grab the good <key dell'umanità>. Thus was born the colony of Hong Kong, emporium intended to serve as a department store in the South China Sea and that this role has seen the population go up spectacularly from a few hundred to over a million inhabitants. non può davvero negare che il posto sia stato ben scelto."> Those arriving in Hong Kong, which in Chinese means <laguna odorosa> can not really deny that the place was well chosen. On a background of green hills lies the city of Victoria, with its half a million inhabitants, with its banks the its stores, its hotels, its houses of the European appearance. Here and there a pinnacle with Gothic arched windows reminiscent of Anglo-Saxon origin of the colony. da">The city daughter of the Opium War, has in the face of the tormented hills covered with dark green vegetation of the peninsula of ionn Kow, in the middle lies a tranquil bay and immense furrowed in every direction by the great ocean liners, from poor to <carrette> cargo ships, sampans and junks by a multitude of sails bat-wing dedicated to the most diverse trades. On the roadsides are lined endless rows of rickshaws, carriages pulled by Chinese coolies, ready to navigate the city running for very little money that will end up invariably changed in a handful of rice and a pipe of opium. Old to 25 years old, decrepit at 30, these products of the teeming humanity Chinese are a melancholy note of the picturesque East. Set apart from the multitude of Chinese houses rise hotels where the rich, merchants, stockbrokers industrial spend on a lunch even several thousands of pounds and many squander it shortly after playing mah jong. On the hills that form the backdrop to the city of Peak, are the neighborhoods of the British privileged that will make up there as an Olympus. Today fearful that a Olympus trembles at the approach of the Japanese for all the shady dealings of arms deliveries made with the shaky government Ciung the King and now backfire to the detriment of sordid speculators with the scarcity of food, the loss of face of the British and soon perhaps with much more serious consequences. Faced with the wealthy Brits who return each night to their homes of the poor coolies cadenced trot is the multitude of the inhabitants of junks and sampans hundred thousand people who live on a daily bowl of rice, 'water, ready to exercise the strangest trades, to smuggle vegetables or scrap iron according happens there. They are part of this strange world of countless old sampans and junks from sailing keel semifradicia trapeze patched and tattered as the garments of their masters. And all these woods teeming humanity of year shuttling between Hong Kong and Kow Ioon, between Canton and Ioon Kow (as far as the block allows Japanese), sometimes scattered in the bay like sheep in the pasture, sometimes stacked like camels in the desert and how they started with melancholy gentleness towards their goal of ever-renewed effort. Landa Vannucci
TO BE CONTINUED…
Padre Leone Nani