Luxun Arbor, in the past known as Port Artur, is a little sea-town located at 45 Km at North of Dalian.
The little town has characteristic of a tipical plant structure Russian city with a touch of Japanese architecture. Surprisengly this is also the only town to have a modest history museum in whole Dalian peninsula. This museum has many Japan war trofy conquered back after 1945, between them some of the famous Xinjiang Mummies.
Luxun Arbor is a nice option to spend a day out from Dalian and enjoy the panorama.
A brief history of Luxun arbor:
Originally called “Shikou” (Lion Mouth) durign Qing dinasty due to its arbor’s water difficult to navigate, in 1860 has been known to Western countries as “Port Artur” after that captian Willian Artur from British Royal Navy renamed it.
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868 the Japanese Government started the westernization of his structure and to absorb the Western ideals including those of the colonialism.
The Japanese expansion in Korea afftects the relationships between Japan and Qing Empire. The tension transform in a one-year conflict known as First Sino-Japanese War (1894 – 1895). The Japanese army captured Port Arthur and the city and It is said that after the saige, of a population of 18,300 only 36 civillian survived. Liaonin peninsula is ceded soon to Japan, but in 1895, right before the end of the war the Qing armies got back the area.
The recognization of the Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japan, 1895) ends of the Sino-Japanese War and the dispute by ceding Taiwan and other concessions, including the Liaoning peninsula, to Japan. The treaty also made China obliged to pay another big war indemnity, this time to Japan, and to recognize to it special treatments in the Southern areas such as Hangzhou and Suzhou.
Three years later, in 1898, the Russia leased the southern part of the peninsula obtaining Dalian and Luxunkou. The city of Dalny is founded in 1899.
Russo-Japanese war & 203 Highlands Battle
The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) is one of the most vivid example of the grew expansionary ambitions ofLuxunkou Russian and the Japanese empires. The main contended fields were Korea and Mancuria, Russia was infact seeking for another portual area in far East (at that time the other one was Vladivostok, and Japan to control the sea between Japan, Korea and Liaoning Peninsula.
In February 1904 the Japanese to take back the peninsula, while were surrounding the area of the Luxun Arbor with their fleet, at the same time lunched an operation to regain the controlo of Luxun by bombing from the high of nearbie hills. This attack will sign the begin of the Battle of Port Arthur which will least for 4 months. In this link is possible to see the how the war vassels were dinstributed outside the arbor to saige the Russian one settled inside of it.
Very famous is the 203 Highlands Battle, which was an important battlefield along the western part of Liaoning. Very rapidly the Japanese climbed the hill and conquered the position of the Russian cannons located here for the tactical view of the bay.
Redirecing the cannons to the bay, the Japanese started bombing the Russian fleet and the main buildings.
Between Septmeber 19th 1904 and December 5th there have been 15,000 casualties between the Japanese and another 5,000 between the Russians.
Once caputered the highland the Japanese armies directed their cannons to Lushun harbor, distroing almost all the Russian feelt inside the port.
This will remembered as the first war lost by a Western power against an Asian one, the morale lead to an additional mistrust on the Tsarist institutions and perhaps added more support to the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Russians responded to the attack but in 1905 Luxun is returned to Japan who will maintain the control of the area till the end of the World War Two in 1945. According to the Yalta Agreement held by the winning allies US, UK and Soviet Union(Feb.4th-11th, Crimea), Port Arthur is controlled by the Soviet Union. The main topic of the conference was to stabilize European borderns, but eventually also solve the Chinese territory disputes. (Here for more information about the transfer of the Japanese territory to the Soviet Union).
The town of Luxun and Dalian are then united in an unique town under the Russian known as Luda.
After the the war are the Russian to control again the area, Dalian and Port Arthur are merged in a new town known as Luda City.The control will least till, 1955, the Soviet Union will be returned to China Port Arthur after the end of the Korean War (1951-1953).
It’s just in 1981 that the town of Luda change his name in the moder Dalian.